Macrophages are specialized cells involved in detection, phagocytosis and destruction of bacteria. Macrophages, widely distributed in organs and connective tissue plays central roles in innate and adaptive immunity. In addition to ingesting microbes, macrophages also ingest dead host cells, including cells that die in tissues because of trauma or interrupted blood supply and neutrophils that accumulate at sites of infection.
Direct immunofluorescence test is used to detect unknown antigen in a cell or tissue by employing a known labeled antibody that interacts directly with unknown antigen. If antigen is present, it reacts with labeled antibody and the antibody coated antigen is observed under UV light of fluorescence microscope
Quality assurance includes two major principles: Fit for purpose (i.e. product should be suitable for intended purpose) and Right first time (i.e. mistakes should be eliminated).
Based on ISO 9001, quality assurance in pharmaceuticals is concerned with providing confidence that requirements for quality are fulfilled. It consists of consists of eight major principles.
It is a good practice in manufacture of pharmaceutical products, as it is the process of vouching for integrity of products to meet standards for proposed use. It is an obligation that ensures manufacturers meet the needs of end-user needs in terms of safety, efficacy, quality, strength, reliability and durability.
The process of transferring of the denatured fragments out of the gel and onto a membrane made from nylon (or sometimes nitrocellulose) where they become accessible for analyzing using a probe is blotting. Blotting is a method of transferring proteins, DNA, RNA onto a carrier (special membrane). This membrane may be nitrocellulose, PVDF or nylon membrane.
Southern blotting is a hybridization technique for identification of particular size of DNA from the mixture of other similar molecules.
Steps in southern blotting process include:
Restriction Digestion or DNA Fragmentation.
Agarose Gel Electrophoresis
Denaturation and Depurination
Baking and blocking
Amino acids are amphoteric electrolytes (also called as ampholytes) and can act as both acid (proton donor) and base (proton acceptor). They are joined together by condensation reaction between amino group of one acid and carboxyl group of another. Bond formed between two amino acids is known as peptide bond. Amino acids combine through peptide bond formation to form proteins, building blocks of life.