Biochemistry

Vitamins

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Vitamins may be regarded as organic compounds required in the diet in small amounts to perform specific biological functions for normal maintenance of optimum growth and health of the organism. Vitamins are classified as either water-soluble or fat soluble. There are 13 Vitamins necessary for human body.

Immunology

Bonds in Antigen-Antibody Reaction

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Chemical bonds in Antigen-Antibody Reactions

The antigen- antibody interaction is bimolecular irreversible association between antigen and antibody. The association between antigen and antibody includes various non-covalent interactions between epitope (antigenic determinant) and variable region (VH/VL) domain of antibody in a similar manner to that in which proteins bind to their cellular receptors, or enzymes bind to their substrates.

Immunology

Macrophages

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Macrophages

Macrophages are specialized cells involved in detection, phagocytosis and destruction of bacteria. Macrophages, widely distributed in organs and connective tissue plays central roles in innate and adaptive immunity.  In addition to ingesting microbes, macrophages also ingest dead host cells, including cells that die in tissues because of trauma or interrupted blood supply and neutrophils that accumulate at sites of infection.

Immunology

Direct Immunofluorescence Test

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Direct Immunofluorescence

Direct immunofluorescence test is used to detect unknown antigen in a cell or tissue by employing a known labeled antibody that interacts directly with unknown antigen. If antigen is present, it reacts with labeled antibody and the antibody coated antigen is observed under UV light of fluorescence microscope

Immunology

Immunofluorescence

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Immunofluorescence

Immunofluorescence is a technique that utilizes fluorescent-labeled antibodies to detect specific target  antigens. It is based on use of specific antibodies which have been chemically conjugated to fluorescent dyes which binds directly or indirectly to cellular antigens.

Pharmaceutical

Principles of Quality Assurance

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Quality assurance includes two major principles:  Fit for purpose (i.e. product should be suitable for intended purpose) and Right first time (i.e. mistakes should be eliminated).

Based on ISO 9001, quality assurance in pharmaceuticals is concerned with providing confidence that requirements for quality are fulfilled. It consists of consists of eight major principles.

Pharmaceutical

Quality Assurance in Pharmaceuticals

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Quality Assurance of Pharmaceuticals

It is a good practice in manufacture of pharmaceutical products, as it is the process of vouching for integrity of products to meet standards for proposed use. It is an obligation that ensures manufacturers meet the needs of end-user needs in terms of safety, efficacy, quality, strength, reliability and durability.

Molecular Biology

Blotting Techniques

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Hybridization (Blotting) Techniques

The process of transferring of the denatured fragments out of the gel and onto a membrane made from nylon (or sometimes nitrocellulose) where they become accessible for analyzing using a probe is blotting. Blotting is a method of transferring proteins, DNA, RNA onto a carrier (special membrane). This membrane may be nitrocellulose, PVDF or nylon membrane.