Adenosine triphosphate is complex organic molecule which carries energy within cells. It is the energy store house of the cell. Release of energy occurs on hydrolysis of ATP to ADP (Adenosine di-phosphate) and Pi (Inorganic phosphate) . ATP synthase is the enzyme which catalyzes the synthesis of ATP from ADP.
Complement refers to a set of serum proteins that cooperates with both the innate and the adaptive immune systems to eliminate blood and tissue pathogens. Various complement components bind and opsonize bacteria, rendering them susceptible to receptor-mediated phagocytosis by macrophages, which express membrane receptors for complement proteins.
Naked Monoclonal Antibodies: There is no drug or radioactive material attached to them. These are the most common type of mAbs used to treat cancer. Most of them attach to antigens on cancer cells, but some work by binding to antigens on other, non-cancerous cells, or even free-floating proteins.
Conjugated Monoclonal Antibodies: Monoclonal antibodies joined to a chemotherapy drug or to a radioactive particle are called conjugated monoclonal antibodies.
Globally, cholera cases have increased steadily since 2005 and the disease occurs predominantly in Asia and Africa, with periodic large outbreaks, most recently in Haiti and other parts of the Caribbean (Filion K et al. 2015). The higher incidence can be attributed to poor sanitation and remote access to clean and safe drinking water.