Functional modifications in meat and meat products are increasing. It can be achieved by addition of various ingredients such as vegetable oils, soy, fish oils, fiber etc.
Addition of vegetable oils to meat products
- The addition of olive oil to sausages was more effective than using vacuum-storing methods in avoiding lipid oxidation during storage and also increased the monounsaturated fatty acids fraction (MUFA)
- The selection of breeds and genetic lines within breeds, changes in animal feeding practices, including some feed additives (probiotics, antibiotics, and so forth), and intervention in animal metabolism are the main tools used to achieve a reduction in carcass fat content.
Addition of soy
- Soy protein isolate has been added in low-fat bologna.
- Incorporated as fat replacer without any detrimental physicochemical and textural characteristics being noted in the product, except for color values.
Addition of natural extracts with antioxidant properties
- Addition of tea catechins to cooked red meat and poultry was studied by Tang and others (2001). They found that addition at 300 mg/kg minced muscle significantly inhibited the pro-oxidative effect of NaCl and controlled lipid oxidation in cooked muscle patties.
- Sodium chloride control– Although meat as such is relatively poor in sodium, containing only 50 to 90 mg of sodium per 100 g, the sodium content of meat derivatives is much higher because of the salt content, which may reach 2% in heat-treated products and as much as 6% in uncooked cured products, in which drying (loss of moisture) increases the proportion even further.
Addition of vegetal products
- Use of wheat protein as a meat alternative is a relatively recent development.
- Wheat protein is essentially made from gluten that has been processed and extruded to resemble the texture of meat.
Addition of fish oils
- Salchichon is made using back-fat and meat enriched in polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids and –tocopherol, concluding that it is possible to manufacture dry-fermented sausages enriched in n-3 PUFAs without adverse effects on its composition, lipid stability, textural, and sensory properties.
Addition of Fiber
- Increase the cooking yield of meat products due to its water-binding and fat binding properties and to improve texture.
- Water-absorption capacity of oat fiber such as it could potentially benefit products such as fat-free frankfurters and low-fat bologna.
- The addition of Fructo oligosaccharides (FOS) did not affect the pH, water activity or weight losses because the presence of soluble dietary fiber (SDF) leads to a compact gel structure.