Globally, cholera cases have increased steadily since 2005 and the disease occurs predominantly in Asia and Africa, with periodic large outbreaks, most recently in Haiti and other parts of the Caribbean (Filion K et al. 2015). The higher incidence can be attributed to poor sanitation and remote access to clean and safe drinking water.
Bioterrorism is use of infectious agents or other harmful biological or biochemical substances i.e. from biological source as weapons of terrorism. It is intentional release or dissemination of biological agents. These agents are bacteria, viruses, fungi, or toxins, and may be in a naturally occurring or a human-modified form.
Actinomycetes are classified as a group of gram-positive bacteria that are unique on their spore forming abilities and formation of mycelia structures. Actinomycetes refer to the organisms which are morphologically transitional between bacteria and fungi but yet possessing distinctive features to delimit them into a distinct category.
They are also known as ray fungi since actinomycetes are prokaryotic organisms with filamentous nature, branching pattern, and conidia formation, which are similar to those of fungi.
Capsule in bacterial cell helps in preventing the cell from desiccation and drying.Resisting the phagocytosis of microbial cells by macrophages and other phagocytic cells is also an important feature of capsular protection..Capsules are also the virulence determinants of the bacterial cells.
Capsule and Slime layers are glycocalyx, viscous (sticky), gelatinous polymer that is external to the cell wall and composed of polysaccharides, polypeptide or both. If the substance is organized and is firmly attached to the cell wall, the glycocalyx is known as a capsule while unorganized and are loosely attached to the cell wall, it is described as a slime layer.