Quality Assurance

Quality Assurance is any systematic process of checking to see whether a product or service being developed is meeting specified requirements. A quality assurance system is said to increase customer confidence and a company’s credibility, to improve work processes and efficiency, and to enable a company to better compete with others.
Quality assurance is a good practice in manufacture of pharmaceutical products, as it is process of vouching for integrity of products to meet the standard for proposed use.

Chemical Hazards in Foods

Chemical hazard refers to any substance or chemical that can lead to health problem when it reaches inside the body either by ingestion or inhalation. Chemicals present in food are termed as chemical hazards when their level exceeds the limit of acceptance or levels that are hazardous to human. Chemical hazards can be separated into four categories: Naturally occurring chemicals, Intentionally added chemicals, Unintenionally or incidentially added chemicals and Food allergens


Vitamins may be regarded as organic compounds required in the diet in small amounts to perform specific biological functions for normal maintenance of optimum growth and health of the organism. Vitamins are classified as either water-soluble or fat soluble. There are 13 Vitamins necessary for human body.

Bonds in Antigen-Antibody Reaction

The antigen- antibody interaction is bimolecular irreversible association between antigen and antibody. The association between antigen and antibody includes various non-covalent interactions between epitope (antigenic determinant) and variable region (VH/VL) domain of antibody in a similar manner to that in which proteins bind to their cellular receptors, or enzymes bind to their substrates.