Lipid rafts are cholesterol rich domains found on the cell surface, present in the external leaflet of the plasma membrane. These are small micro domains ranging from 10–200 nm in size, which modulate membrane distribution of receptors and signaling molecules facilitating assembly of active signaling platforms.
Quality assurance includes two major principles: Fit for purpose (i.e. product should be suitable for intended purpose) and Right first time (i.e. mistakes should be eliminated).
Based on ISO 9001, quality assurance in pharmaceuticals is concerned with providing confidence that requirements for quality are fulfilled. It consists of consists of eight major principles.
Electron microscopes produce an image of a specimen by using a beam of electrons rather than a beam of light. As electrons have shorter wavelength than visible light, electron microscopes to produce higher-resolution images.
Electron microscope can be of two types, Scanning electron microscope and Transmission electron microscope.
Depending upon the principle on which magnification is based, microscopes are of two categories: Light or Optical microscope, which includes Bright-field, Dark-field, Fluorescence and Phase-contrast.
Electron Microscope, which includes Transmission electron and Scanning electron microscope.
Even though there are advantages of electron microscopes over the light microscopes, sample preparation requires a special process. As it is not possible to view living materials through electron microscopy, specimen to be observed under electron microscope needs to be prepared in special way.
Electron Microscope has become a boon for biological sciences and industry as it gives immense magnification and resolution which has opened new areas and scope of research in cellular and molecular biology.
It is also used in various industries for high resolution, 2D and 3D imaging, mining as well as chemical and petrochemical industries.
Globally, cholera cases have increased steadily since 2005 and the disease occurs predominantly in Asia and Africa, with periodic large outbreaks, most recently in Haiti and other parts of the Caribbean (Filion K et al. 2015). The higher incidence can be attributed to poor sanitation and remote access to clean and safe drinking water.
Glycolysis is breakdown of glucose into two pyruvate molecules with the capture of energy. Glycolysis has two phases: Preparatory and Pay-off. It is sole source of energy for cells lacking mitochondria.
Killing or removing all forms of microbial life (including endospores) in a material or an object is sterilization.
An antiseptic is a substance that stops or slows down the growth of microorganisms.
is any cleaning technique that mechanically removes microorganisms to reduce contamination to safe levels (officially approved as safe).
Parasites are living organisms, which depend on a living host for their nourishment and survival. Their multiplication or development undergo in host. Parasites can be of different types: Ectoparasites, Endoparasites, Free living parasites etc.